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ACTUAL TOPICS - Solar energy and solar panels

Solar energy is one of the most widely used forms of renewable energy. The Sun is the nearest star and the source of life on earth, its radiation can also be used for production of energy. The energy of solar radiation is more than sufficient to meet the growing energy demands of the world.

Research shows that the solar energy that reaches the earth is greater than the energy required to meet the needs of the entire population of our planet, in one year! The energy of solar radiation is sufficient to produce an average of 1,700 kWh of electricity per year on every square meter of soil, and as the radiation is greater at some locations, the more energy is generated.

The intensity of solar radiation in Serbia is among the largest in Europe. The average intensity of solar radiation on the territory of the Republic of Serbia ranges from 1,1kWh / m² / day in the north and 1.7 kWh / m² / day in the south in January, a 5.9 to 6.6 kWh / m² / day in July. Proportionately, the energy of the sun during the broadcast on 1m² roof of the house in Serbia is equal to energy obtained by burning a 130l of oil and it is completely free. Predicted by the International Energy Agency (IEA) solar energy could be a quarter of the energy source of the world's electrical grid, by the 2050.

The application of solar energy can be achieved in two ways: by converting solar energy into thermal energy and converting solar radiation into electricity. Solar systems for heat production are used in households, industry, agricultural buildings and other buildings wich use large amounts of hot water.

Solar paneld are used for the exploitation of solar energy. Solar panels are consist of a large number of small cells whose area of ​​photovoltaic materials are used to convert solar energy into electricity. The first solar panel was created in 1954 and still produces electricity. Photovoltaic systems consist of modules, but they are made of solar cells, and their strength can be designed for virtually any application.

The application of solar energy for lighting, telecommunications, refrigeration, water pumping, as well as providing electricity for the whole village, proved to be competitive and profitable in comparison to existing technologies. There are also other relatively new application of these systems with very high potential, those are facade photovoltaic systems.

The application of solar energy for energy-efficient heating of buildings causes the greatest interest among the general public. The fact that, nowadays, expenses for fuel are high and that none of the existing energy sources for heating is completely reliable and always available, nor satisfies in terms of price, convenience or environmental protection, placed the solar energy in the leading position.

THERE ARE TWO DIFFERENT APPROACHES IN USE OF SOLAR ENETGY IN BUILDINGS, WICH ARE BASED ON:

Passive systems, which translate energy phenomena in the architectural concept, in which the house becomes a receiver that collects and keeps the largest part of the sun's energy.
Active systems, in which the priority is given to installation equipment (solar panels, photovoltaic cells, focusing solar energy - use in large power plants).

The biggest advantage of passive solar buildings is a pleasant interior atmosphere, especially in residential architecture. Viable passive solar homes are built even in climates with almost constant cloudiness and bad weather conditions. The difference between active and passive solar systems is that in case of passive solar system there is a special system device but the entire building works as a collector of solar radiation while in the active system functions of collectors perform parts and elements of buildings.

Passive use of solar energy is the basic and cheapest way of using energy from the environment. The natural environmental factors, such as air, land configuration, orientation, wind, vegetation, buildings, interrelationships, etc., are taking into consideration as an important elements of construction of passive buildings which are energy efficient and use solar energy. A significant advantage of the use of solar energy in residential areas, that is particularly suitable for individual residential buildings, is that it can contribute to reducing consumption of conventional energy sources in the settlements of small density.

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